Jennifer Ledoux
University of New Hampshire Manchester


Genomic research methods and techniques were reviewed and analyzed to identify the tremendously complex disease of Breast cancer. Breast cancer has been found to have intrinsic subtype classifications, molecular biomarkers, and classification of primary tumor genotypes as well as specific genes with distinct associations. By interpreting how subtype differences and similarities work with or against specific genomic abnormalities, breast cancer tumors and histopathologic features can be better understood. Through researching genomic databases and reading various scientific articles, some correlations of gene association and specific models of treatment have been identified. More studies and research must be done in the field of gene expression profiling to understand which clinical applications should be used, with every individual case being unique.


For women, breast cancer is the most common occurring cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths. Invasive cancer break through the walls of the glands or ducts and spread to other areas of breast tissue.

Breast cancer consists of a heterogeneous group of diseases, with many different subtypes of both invasive and non-invasive cancers. Genetic heterogeneity refers to a genetic variation compared to the normal population. Genetic heterogeneous diseases are caused by mutations in multiple genes.

Normal cells grow, divide, and then die off. Cancer cells are mutated in different ways and can either not stop dividing or do not die off as they are supposed to. These cells accumulate and create tumors. This is known as oncogenesis. Breast cancer has been linked to genes that have some control over oncogenesis. These cells undergo natural selection and are able to survive in harsh conditions, like chemotherapy treatments and radiation, and are able to reproduce their mutation. By passing on the mutation, these cells share common gene profiles (Dawson et al., 2013).

Through gene expression profiling methods, researchers have been able to understand the DNA differences and similarities between people and their personal DNA sequences. By comparing the areas of DNA where genes are mutated we can see the genetic variability of populations (Donahue and Genetos, 2013).

Breast Cancer Results
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Current Testing
Gene of Interest
Materials and Methods
Broader Impacts and Future Works
Breast Cancer Works Cited