Mirian Samaan
miv24@wildcats.unh.edu
University of New Hampshire



Abstract


The goal of this research is to gain a better understanding of the genetic background and causes of the genetic disease of colorectal cancer. By accessing many genomics data base and projects such as Geneworld, Hapmap, and Esembl. Geneword allowed gave the background information about the spread of this disease in population and its history patterns. the Hapmap allowed us to see the disease genetic SNPs related to this disease. Esembl gave valuable information about frequencies of these SNPs in the populations. Genomics of the APC gene is analyzed in that research to better understand the mutation present in the gene and how each mutation could have its own impact the the development of cancer, and steps that can be taken to help prevent colon cancer or treat it were researched.

apc networks.PNG
Image shows APC gene interactions with other genes. Image obtained from BioGRID,
http://thebiogrid.org/


Background


  • Colorectal cancer is the third commonly diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops in the colon or large intestine. The Colon is muscular tube about five feet long where water and mineral nutrients are absorbed. Some of Colorectal cancer warning signs are bleeding in stool, dark or stools, lower abdomen cramping or discomfort, unintentional weight loss, decreased appetite. According to The American Cancer Society, Approximately 1 in 2 will be Americans will be diagnosed with colon cancer in lifetime. Regular screening can help with early detection on colon cancer, as well as marinating body health and lifestyle.


  • A convincing movement toward screening people for hidden colorectal cancer is done to early detection, many ways people can detect cancer is by screening, colonoscopy, or other colonoscopy alternatives such as flexible sigmoidoscopy, stool testing, Virtual Colonoscopy (Harvard Men's Health Watch, 2016). Colon Cancer primary appear at stage II with 40% of all colon cancer patients, and 20-30 % will relapse and die of their disease. CRC is characterized to be caused by a genetic alterations. Identifying chromosomal aberrations could predict relapse tumor in patients with stage II Colon cancer, the study shows that patients that relapse of stage II colon cancer has more losses on chromosome 4 (Brosens et all., 2011)


  • People with family history of Colon Cancer have higher chance in getting this disease, because of genes mutations of the FAD (familial adenomatous polyposis) and HNPCC hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer. After many researches and evidence, APC gene is an inherited gene that keeps cell growth in check, a miss-function of that gene could lead to Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), where cancer can grow forming polyps in the colons. Mutations of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes (hMSH2, hMLH1, and hPMS2) are believed to be responsible to the HNPCC cancer (Migliore, Migheli, Spisni & Coppede, 2011). Therefore, regulating and understanding gene expression is significantly important to control and find a cure of these disease.






Materials and Methods
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Discussion
Broader Impacts
Work-Cited