BLAST: The BLAST search that I performed on the DRD4 gene came back with many other species that have this gene. This was the first step to running a phylogenetic analysis that I used MEGA to perform. This showed me that there is a possibility for other species to have the same variants of the DRD4 gene that thought to be one of the main genes involved in ADHD.

MEGA: The alignment of the DRD4 genes in the species that were found during a BLAST search showed that there were not many gaps between them. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the human DRD4 gene is most closely related to the gorilla. The other species that have this gene used

UCSC: This genome browser gave the information that in humans, the DRD4 gene is located on chromosome 11. It also shows the same part of the chromosome in 100 other vertebrates. This shows how closely or not closely related the section of the chromosome is in other vertebrates.

Research Questions:

Can other species have ADHD based on mutations in the DRD4 gene?
Based on the information that I found in my research, other species could have ADHD. A study done in 2005 (Russel et. al 2005) suggested that rats with variations in the DRD4 gene behave differently. However, there are other dopamine receptors responsible for behavioral problems or differences that I did not study, It is also not certain whether or not variability in dopamine receptors is the only cause of ADHD, but it is the most studied. For example, it is suggested that a child's environment could play a large role in the development of ADHD.

What are some treatments for ADHD and how do they work?
Treatments of ADHD are individualized based on the variance in DNA of the patients (Franke et al. 2010). Current treatment methods include stimulants like methylphenidate or amphetamines. These stimulants work by increasing dopamine in the brain and have a calming or focusing affect on the patient. Stimulants help about 70% of the time, and the consequences sometimes outweigh the benefits, as insomnia is sometimes reported. Other methods of treatment are currently being studied.


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